I've got a couple of old charts at home that list cartridge compatability that I'll have to check. It is a bit dated but still accurate. These are what I remember. You can shoot .45 Colt rounds in the 454 Casull and both will work in the .460 S&W. Any gun that will fire .45 Colt rounds will also fire .45 Schofield ammo too but not conversely. .45 ACP can be fired in some .45 Colt revolvers with the use of half or full moon clips or one can use .45 Auto Rim instead. .44 American can be fired in the .44 Russian which can be shot in the .44 Special in turn this can be used in the .44 mag and they all can be fired in the .445 Super Mag. In the .38/.357 rounds, I'd have to check to make sure but I believe the .38 Colts can be fired in the .38 Spl and .357 mag but not the .38 S&W rounds as the later are actually .38" in diameter rather than .357". The .38 Spl, .357 mag, and the .38 Colts can also be fired in the .357 Maximum. .38/44 rounds can also be used in the .38 Spl as these are merely heavy +P loadings which were the forerunners to the .357 mag.
The .32 Short Colt can be fired in the .32 Long Colt but they are not interchangeable with the .32 S&W rounds. .38 Auto can be fired in the .38 Super but not the other way around.
The .300 H&H can be fired in the .300 Weatherby and was a common way of forming the Weatherby case at one time.
Differring names for the same cartridge are plentiful too.
As mentioned, 9mm Luger and 9mm Parabellum are the same as is .380 Auto/9mm Browning Short/Korto/Kurz. .25 Auto/.25 ACP/6.35 Browning are the same cartridge and Colt called their chamberings for the .32 and .38 S&W rounds the New Police. The British loadings of the .38 S&W Long were often marked .380 Webley or .380-200. Remington has had a couple of name changes too, the .244/6mm Remington and the 7mm Express/.280. The .250 Savage is the same as the .250/3000 and there are a whole slew of differing names for the .30/30 Win. And then there is the .22 Savage Hi-Power, known in Europe as the 5.6x52R.
These are what I remember off hand, I'll check my references if I remember and wil post any other cartridge interchangeability if there is anything major/common or if this post wasn't boring enough.